Prefabricated Building Insulation Essential Knowledge
The external wall insulation materials are mainly divided into four grades: A, B1, B2 and B3. Grade A is non-combustible material, which is an inorganic insulation material.B grade insulation material, divided into three grades, B1 is flame retardant, B2 is flammable, B3 is easy to get fire.
2. External wall external insulation, external wall internal insulation, sandwich insulation
(1) The external insulation of the external wall.The insulation layer is installed on the external surface of the external wall, which is composed of insulation layer, protective layer and fixing material.Advantages: high thermal performance, good insulation effect, low comprehensive investment.It is not only suitable for new construction, but also for old building renovation.The insulation layer is on the outside of the main structure, which can protect the main structure and extend the life of the building, basically eliminate the effect of hot (cold) bridge and the condensation and mildew phenomenon and improve the living standard. Disadvantages: the insulation layer is on the outside of the wall in a harsh environment, so the requirements of the insulation system are strict.The materials should be matched and compatible with each other.The weather resistance and durability of the thermal insulation system are required.Difficult construction and need a construction team with better quality and technical support.
(2) The second is external wall internal insulation.Advantage is: The insulation layer is inside. In the evening of summer, the surface temperature of the wall inside gets down with air temperature, which will reduce hot feeling.The durability is better than external insulation, which greatly increases the service life of the insulation.Good fire safety.Construction is convenient and not easy to be affected by wind and rain.Construction is simple and the cost is relatively low, and the construction technology and inspection standards are relatively more standard. Disadvantages: it is difficult to avoid hot (cold) bridge, so that the thermal insulation performance is reduced. In the heat bridge parts of the external wall internal surface,it is prone to have condensation, moisture and even mildew phenomenon.The insulation layer done indoors, not only take up indoor space, but also make it more difficult to do second decoration or add hanging facilities which will be able to cause damage to insulation layer and very difficult to repair.Not conducive to the protection of building envelope.Cracks in the insulation layer and walls have become a common phenomenon, and cracks in the internal thermal insulation are always in the view of the residents, which have a long-term impact on the aesthetic and psychological awareness of the residents and become the focal point for complaints.
(3) Finally, sandwich insulation. This technology is to place the insulation material between the inner and outer wall at the same time. The traditional clay brick and concrete hollow block can be used for the inner and outer wall.The advantages are: waterproof, weather resistance and other properties are good.Protect the inner wall and insulation material.Requirements for insulation materials are not high, polystyrene, glass wool, rock wool and other materials can all be used.The construction season and construction conditions are not high. Winter construction is accepted.The disadvantage is: the influence of thermal bridge weakens the adiabatic performance of the wall.Combined steel and wall stud are still thermal bridges;External wall sandwich insulation wall is thicker,which will reduce the effective using area.Poor seismic performance.Because the insulation layer is between two layers of load-bearing rigid wall;The joints of precast panels are prone to leak water.Due to the temperature fluctuation at both ends of the structure, the external wall sandwich insulation is easy to damage the wall structure.
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